What is weight loss surgery?
Weight loss surgery helps people to lose weight. There are two types of operations. They can be restrictive or a combination of restrictive and malabsorptive.
- Restrictive: This type of surgery reduces the size of the stomach.
- Malabsorptive: This surgery alters the trajectory of the intestine. Food draws (or skips) part of the pipe. Since nutrients are usually absorbed in the gut, skipping part of it reduces the amount it can absorb. This can result in thinning.
Weight loss surgery is usually done only if the body mass index (BMI) is at least 40. Surgery may also be an option if your BMI is at least 35, and you have other problems with Health-related to your weight. With a BMI of at least 35 or higher, you can have surgery if you have tried to lose weight for at least six months with diet and exercise.
The weight-loss operation is also called bariatric surgery. The three main types are:
- Placing an adjustable gastric band: The doctor wraps the upper part of the stomach with a group. Attached to the band is a thin tube that leads to an access port that is left under the skin. Approximately 4 to 6 weeks after surgery, the doctor places a needle in the access port to add or remove saltwater (saline solution) in the band. By adding saline, the group narrows and reduces the size of the stomach. The doctor may remove saline if the band is too tight.
- Gastric sleeve: The doctor removes more than half of the stomach and leaves a thin vertical sleeve, or tube, which is about the size of a banana. Because part of the stomach has been removed, this surgery cannot be reversed.
- Gastric bypass: The food draws (skips) the rest of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine. Bypassing part of the small intestine reduces the amount of food, nutrients and calories the body uses. This can cause weight loss. This type of gastric bypass surgery is called Roux Y gastric bypass.
How is this surgery done?
Weight loss surgery can be done in two ways.
- Open surgery The surgeon makes a significant cut in the abdomen.
- Laparoscopic surgery. The surgeon makes several small cuts and uses small instruments and a camera to guide the surgery. You recover sooner from this type of surgery. And you are less likely to have pain or problems after the operation.
What do you usually understand?
Undergoing weight loss surgery is an important step. After surgery, you will have to make new and lifelong changes in how you eat and drink.
You will collaborate with a team that is trained to help you lose weight and make healthy changes in your life. They will be there to help you prepare for surgery. Before surgery, ask your team how they will help you prepare for life after surgery while you adapt to new ways of eating and changes in your body.
Your team may include:
- A doctor or nurse to help you with care management and to schedule tests before surgery.
- A surgeon specialized in weight loss surgery.
- A certified dietitian to help you plan meals and make changes to your diet.
- An exercise specialist to help you be more active and strengthen.
- A therapist or counselor to help you know why you overeat and teach you ways to deal with stress and your emotions.
How does weight loss surgery work?
Depending on the type of operation, most people lose at least one-third of their excess weight after surgery. Some people lose almost all the influence they have leftover. The reduction in weight varies with the type of surgery. It also depends on how well people follow their doctor’s recommendations for lifestyle changes, control appointments and counseling.
In a study comparing band placement and gastric bypass, band placement had fewer surgical risks than gastric bypass. But people who put on the gastric band tended to lose weightlessly.
People who had gastric sleeve surgery or gastric bypass tended to lose more weight. Gastric sleeve surgery is less effective than gastric bypass but has fewer risks.
What are the risks of weight-loss operations?
People who are very overweight are more likely than others to suffer problems from any surgery. And after any weight loss surgery:
- You could get an infection in the area where the cuts were made.
- A blood clot can form and block the flow of blood to the lung ( pulmonary embolism ).
- You may not get an adequate amount of specific vitamins and minerals. This can lead to problems such as anaemia and osteoporosis.
- Some people have gallstones.
- You may regain weight a few years after surgery if you do not follow your diet and lifestyle plan.
What are the risks of each type of operation?
Talk to your doctor to understand all your risks. Here are some of the most common or significant risks for each of the weight-loss surgeries.
- After the placement of an adjustable gastric band, you are more likely to need another operation to solve problems than with gastric bypass surgery. For example, some people need a second operation because they are not happy with having the band. Or the group can slide, or it can move from outside the stomach to the inside. This is called erosion.
- The surgeries gastric bypass and gastric sleeve may cause leakage of the stomach to the abdominal area. This leak can cause an infection called peritonitis.
- With gastric bypass, the connection between the stomach and the small intestine can be narrowed. This can cause nausea and vomiting after eating.
Remember that weight loss surgery is not cosmetic surgery. It will not remove fatty tissue. And after losing a lot of weight, you may have excess skin. Some people choose to have additional operations to remove the skin from the abdomen, thighs, upper arms or breasts (breasts).